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__NOTOC__
 
__NOTOC__
{{Menu}}
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{{Menu1}}
[[Image:Horace_Finaly.jpg|thumb|120px|'''Horace Finaly''' (1871-1945) [http://www.bnpparibas.com/img/histoire/moyen/Finaly.jpg]]]
+
[[Image:Horace_Finaly.jpg|thumb|120px|'''Horace Finaly''' (1871-1945) [https://histoire.bnpparibas/wp-content/uploads/FRAHBNPP_11Fi90-e1434464865327.jpg]]]
 +
<!--  [http://www.bnpparibas.com/img/histoire/moyen/Finaly.jpg] -->
 
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{{N|Publications by Escola Finaly (Books and documents)|1}}
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{{N|Finaly School Publications (Books and documents)|1}}
  
  
 
__TOC__
 
__TOC__
 
</td></tr><tr><td>
 
</td></tr><tr><td>
 +
== {{N|News|1}} ==
 +
 +
{|style="border:1px solid #418ade; margin-bottom:5px; padding:1px;" cellpadding=10 cellspacing=0 width=100%
 +
|- style="vertical-align:top;"
 +
| <video>130rBtZSBR0|300|200</video>
 +
| {{B|97% Owned - How is money created. Positive Money Cut|1}}
 +
97% owned present serious research and verifiable evidence on our economic and financial system. This is the first documentary to tackle this issue from a UK-perspective and explains the inner workings of Central Banks and the Money creation process.
 +
 +
When money drives almost all activity on the planet, it's essential that we understand it. Yet simple questions often get overlooked, questions like; where does money come from? Who creates it? Who decides how it gets used? And what does this mean for the millions of ordinary people who suffer when the monetary, and financial system, breaks down?
 +
 +
'''YouTube''': [https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=130rBtZSBR0 97% Owned - How is money created. Positive Money Cut]
 +
|}
 +
 +
 +
{|style="border:1px solid #418ade; margin-bottom:5px; padding:1px;" cellpadding=10 cellspacing=0 width=100%
 +
|- style="vertical-align:top;"
 +
| <video>WpFzlj6ChaI|300|200</video>
 +
| {{B|[[The telematic currency: an instrument for peace - 2009|The telematic currency: an instrument for peace - 2009]]|1}}
 +
Without cash, we would live in a much more secure environment. There would be less violent and more social cohesion, since the main attractive for illegal activities would disappear. The telematic implies great hope for all the population on de planet as long as it is used as an instrument dedicated to preserve the liberty and information of all citizens.
 +
 +
[[Agustí Chalaux i de Subirà]] (1911-2006) founder of the [http://www.bardina.org Joan Bardina Studies Center] (1984) and of the [http://www.finaly.org Finaly School] (1995), investigated and developed throughout his life this economic, scientific and rationalized system.
 +
 +
{{Itranslation}} [[:fca:La moneda telemàtica, una eina per la pau - 2009|(Català)]] [[:fes:La moneda telemática, un instrumento para la paz - 2009|(Español)]] [[:ffr:La monnaie télématique : Un instrument de paix - 2009|(Français)]] [[:fit:La moneta telematica: Uno strumento per la pace - 2009|(Italiano)]]
 +
|}
 +
 +
 +
{|style="border:1px solid #418ade; margin-bottom:5px; padding:1px;" cellpadding=10 cellspacing=0 width=100%
 +
|- style="vertical-align:top;"
 +
| <video>bRyvdvPRcLE|300|200</video>
 +
| {{B|45 Years Ago Today Richard Nixon Killed The Gold Standard - 08/15/1971|1}}
 +
45 years ago today, on 08/15/1971, under pressure from the FEDERAL RESERVE, Nixon suspended the convertibility of the US dollar into gold.
 +
The Federal Reserve demanded this action TO PROTECT THE US DOLLAR FROM SPECULATORS.
 +
 +
The value of the US dollar has been steadily falling ever since.
 +
Today our currency has a lower value than the Canadian dollar, or the Euro.
 +
 +
Wikipedia: [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nixon_shock https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nixon_shock]
 +
|}
 +
  
 
== {{N|Collection [[Bullae]]|1}} ==
 
== {{N|Collection [[Bullae]]|1}} ==
Line 33: Line 73:
  
  
[[Image:Translation.png|30px]] [[:fca:La plutarquia i altres relats|(Català)]] [[:fes:La plutarquía y otros relatos|(Español)]] [[:fit:La plutarchia e altri racconti|(Italiano)]]
+
{{Itranslation}} [[:fca:La plutarquia i altres relats|(Català)]] [[:fes:La plutarquía y otros relatos|(Español)]] [[:fit:La plutarchia e altri racconti|(Italiano)]] [[:fro:Despre plutrocaţie şi alte povestiri|(Română)]]
 
}}
 
}}
  
  
 
{{Title_3
 
{{Title_3
|'''[[An instrument to build peace|An Instrument to Build Peace]]'''
+
|'''[[Horace Finaly|Horace Finaly]]'''
|[[Agustí Chalaux i de Subirà]]
+
|Alfred Colling
[[Image:An_instrument_peace.jpg|right|100px]]
+
[[Image:Horace_Finaly_02.jpg|right|110px]]
 
<br />
 
<br />
A text which proposes the use of modern technology to implant a universal electronic coinage which would favour world peace and tend to eliminate anonymous money. The connection between anonymous money and imperialism is also discussed.
+
History of the banker Horace Finaly.
  
  
[[Image:Translation.png|30px]] [[:fca:Una eina per construir la pau|(Català)]] [[:fes:Un instrumento para construir la paz|(Español)]] [[:ffr:Un outil pour construire la paix|(Français)]]
+
{{Itranslation}} [[:fca:Horace Finaly|(Català)]] [[:fes:Horace Finaly|(Español)]] [[:ffr:Horace Finaly|(Français)]] [[:fro:Horace Finaly|(Română)]]
 
}}
 
}}
  
  
 
{{Title_3
 
{{Title_3
|'''[[Essay|Essay on Currency, Market and Society]]'''
+
|'''[[The earliest precursor of writing|The Earliest Precursor of Writing]]'''
|[[Magdalena Grau i Figueras]] - [[Agustí Chalaux i de Subirà]]
+
|[[Denise Schmandt-Besserat]]
 
[[Image:Bulla_small.jpg|right|130px]]
 
[[Image:Bulla_small.jpg|right|130px]]
 
<br />
 
<br />
A book in which a new economic and political model is proposed, based on a transparent and responsible market, the minimisation of power over individuals and the creation of a society with less misery and corruption.
+
Denise Schmandt-Besserat, suggest the hypothesis that these simple clay figurines represent the first currency in history. That that currency is a «note», a «bookkeeping entry», and that this opens the way to writing.
 +
 
 +
 
 +
{{Itranslation}} [[:fca:El primer antecedent de l'escriptura|(Català)]] [[:fde:Vom ursprung der schrift|(Deutsch)]] [[:fes:El primer antecedente de la escritura|(Español)]] [[:ffr:Les plus anciens précurseurs de l'écriture|(Français)]] [[:fro:Primul antecedent al scrierii|(Română)]]
 +
}}
 +
 
 +
 
 +
{{Title_3
 +
|'''[[Two precursors of writing: plain and complex tokens|Two Precursors of Writing: Plain and Complex Tokens]]'''
 +
|[[Denise Schmandt-Besserat]]
 +
[[Image:Two_Precursors_of_Writing_Figure_04.jpg|right|150px]]
 +
<br />
 +
Before the Sumerian writing system—the first script ever developed—was invented at the end of the fourth millennium B.C., accounting was practiced in the ancient Middle East by means of small counters. These were small tokens modeled in clay in different shapes, each symbolizing a particular commodity. The token system consisted of two kinds of tokens—«plain» and «complex».
  
  
[[Image:Translation.png|30px]] [[:fca:Assaig|(Català)]] [[:fes:Ensayo|(Español)]]
+
{{Itranslation}} [[:fes:Dos precursores de la escritura: cuentas simples y complejas|(Español)]]
 
}}
 
}}
  
  
 
{{Title_3
 
{{Title_3
|'''[[Horace Finaly|Horace Finaly]]'''
+
|'''[[Reckoning before writing|Reckoning Before Writing]]'''
|Alfred Colling
+
|[[Denise Schmandt-Besserat]]
[[Image:Horace_Finaly_02.jpg|right|110px]]
+
[[Image:Reckoning_Before_Writing_Bulla_01.jpg|right|150px]]
 
<br />
 
<br />
History of the banker Horace Finaly.
+
The tokens from Tepe Asiab may be considered an elaboration of a system of counting based on pebbles. The novelty was to use clay for the manufacture of the counters, permitting one to model the tokens into various shapes and to assign each form a particular meaning. Thus, the counters became a more precise memory aid since they not only conferred the quantity but also the specific nature of the commodities recorded.
  
  
[[Image:Translation.png|30px]] [[:fca:Horace Finaly|(Català)]] [[:fes:Horace Finaly|(Español)]] [[:ffr:Horace Finaly|(Français)]]
 
 
}}
 
}}
  
  
 
{{Title_3
 
{{Title_3
|'''[[The earliest precursor of writing|The Earliest Precursor of Writing]]'''
+
|'''[[The emergence of recording|The Emergence of Recording]]'''
 
|[[Denise Schmandt-Besserat]]
 
|[[Denise Schmandt-Besserat]]
[[Image:Bulla_small.jpg|right|130px]]
+
[[Image:Precursor_Writing_01.jpg|right|150px]]
 +
<br />
 +
Tokens are small clay artifacts modeled in various shapes, mostly geometric. In previous publications, I wrote that tokens were used for recording prior to writing in the ancient Middle East. I suggested that each token shape stood for a precise quantity of a particular good such as "a peck of barley" or "a jar of oil". In this paper, I focus on the earliest assemblages of tokens and present the available data concerning where, when, and how the first tokens appear. Finally I identity factor(s) which may have been responsible for the emergence of recording.
 +
 
 +
 
 +
}}
 +
 
 +
 
 +
{{Title_3
 +
|'''[[An instrument to build peace|An Instrument to Build Peace]]'''
 +
|[[Agustí Chalaux i de Subirà]]
 +
[[Image:An_instrument_peace.jpg|right|120px]]
 +
<br />
 +
A text which proposes the use of modern technology to implant a universal electronic coinage which would favour world peace and tend to eliminate anonymous money. The connection between anonymous money and imperialism is also discussed.
 +
 
 +
 
 +
{{Itranslation}} [[:fca:Una eina per construir la pau|(Català)]] [[:fes:Un instrumento para construir la paz|(Español)]] [[:ffr:Un outil pour construire la paix|(Français)]] [[:fit:Uno strumento per costruire la pace|(Italiano)]]
 +
}}
 +
 
 +
 
 +
{{Title_3
 +
|'''[[Essay|Essay on Currency, Market and Society]]'''
 +
|[[Magdalena Grau i Figueras]] - [[Agustí Chalaux i de Subirà]]
 +
[[Image:Essay_on_currency_market_and_society.jpg|right|140px]]
 
<br />
 
<br />
Denise Schmand-Besserat advances the hypothesis that some simple figurines of clay represent the first currency of the history. That that currency is a «note», a «countable writing», a «settlement of newspaper», and that this opens step to the writing.
+
A book in which a new economic and political model is proposed, based on a transparent and responsible market, the minimisation of power over individuals and the creation of a society with less misery and corruption.
  
  
[[Image:Translation.png|30px]] [[:fde:Vom ursprung der schrift|(Deutsch)]] [[:fes:El primer antecedente de la escritura|(Español)]]
+
{{Itranslation}} [[:fca:Assaig|(Català)]] [[:fes:Ensayo|(Español)]]
 
}}
 
}}
  
Line 93: Line 167:
  
  
[[Image:Translation.png|30px]] [[:fca:Notes Autobiogràfiques|(Català)]] [[:fde:Eine kurze Autobiographie|(Deutsch)]] [[:fes:Notas Autobiográficas|(Español)]] [[:feo:Aŭtobiografiaj notoj|(Esperanto)]] [[:ffr:Notes Autobiographiques|(Français)]] [[:fit:Note Autobiografiche|(Italiano)]]
+
{{Itranslation}} [[:fca:Notes Autobiogràfiques|(Català)]] [[:fde:Eine kurze Autobiographie|(Deutsch)]] [[:fes:Notas Autobiográficas|(Español)]] [[:feo:Aŭtobiografiaj notoj|(Esperanto)]] [[:ffr:Notes Autobiographiques|(Français)]] [[:fit:Note Autobiografiche|(Italiano)]]
 
}}
 
}}
  
Line 105: Line 179:
  
  
[[Image:Translation.png|30px]] [[:fca:Moneda telemàtica|(Català)]] [[:fde:Telematische währung|(Deutsch)]] [[:fes:Moneda telemática|(Español)]] [[:ffr:Monnaie telematique|(Français)]] [[:fit:Moneta telematica|(Italiano)]]
+
{{Itranslation}} [[:fca:Moneda telemàtica|(Català)]] [[:fde:Telematische währung|(Deutsch)]] [[:fes:Moneda telemática|(Español)]] [[:ffr:Monnaie telematique|(Français)]] [[:fit:Moneta telematica|(Italiano)]]
 
}}
 
}}
  
Line 117: Line 191:
  
  
[[Image:Translation.png|30px]] [[:fca:El poder del diner|(Català)]] [[:fes:El poder del dinero|(Español)]] [[:fit:Il potere del denaro|(Italiano)]]
+
{{Itranslation}} [[:fca:El poder del diner|(Català)]] [[:fes:El poder del dinero|(Español)]] [[:fit:Il potere del denaro|(Italiano)]]
 
}}
 
}}
  
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[[Image:Translation.png|30px]] [[:fca:Petita història de la moneda|(Català)]] [[:fde:Kleine geschichte des zahlungsmittels|(Deutsch)]] [[:fes:Pequeña historia de la moneda|(Español)]] [[:feo:Malgranda historio de la monero|(Esperanto)]] [[:ffr:Petite histoire de la monnaie|(Français)]] [[:fit:Breve storia della moneta|(Italiano)]]
+
{{Itranslation}} [[:fca:Petita història de la moneda|(Català)]] [[:fde:Kleine geschichte des zahlungsmittels|(Deutsch)]] [[:fes:Pequeña historia de la moneda|(Español)]] [[:feo:Malgranda historio de la monero|(Esperanto)]] [[:ffr:Petite histoire de la monnaie|(Français)]] [[:fit:Breve storia della moneta|(Italiano)]] [[:fro:Scurtă istorie a monedei|(Română)]]
 
}}
 
}}
  
Line 141: Line 215:
  
  
[[Image:Translation.png|30px]] [[:fca:El capitalisme comunitari|(Català)]] [[:fde:Der gemeinschaftliche kapitalismus|(Deutsch)]] [[:fes:El capitalismo comunitario|(Español)]] [[:feo:La komunuma kapitalismo|(Esperanto)]] [[:ffr:Le capitalisme communautaire|(Français)]] [[:fit:Il capitalismo comunitario|(Italiano)]]
+
{{Itranslation}} [[:fca:El capitalisme comunitari|(Català)]] [[:fde:Der gemeinschaftliche kapitalismus|(Deutsch)]] [[:fes:El capitalismo comunitario|(Español)]] [[:feo:La komunuma kapitalismo|(Esperanto)]] [[:ffr:Le capitalisme communautaire|(Français)]] [[:fit:Il capitalismo comunitario|(Italiano)]] [[:fro:Capitalismul comunitar|(Română)]]
 
}}
 
}}
  
Line 150: Line 224:
 
[[Image:Maurice_Allais.jpg|right|110px]]
 
[[Image:Maurice_Allais.jpg|right|110px]]
 
<br />
 
<br />
Communication presented/displayed by Agustí Chalaux de Subirà Saturday, 17 of February of 2001, in the seat of the Randa Foundation, in where the history of Capitalism is explained comunitari, its disappearance in please the monopoly of deprived Capitalism, and a proposal of the Nobel prize de Economy of the 1988, Maurice Allais, who can make resurge it.
+
Communication presented/displayed by Agustí Chalaux i de Subirà Saturday, 17 of February of 2001, in the seat of the Randa Foundation, in where the history of Capitalism is explained comunitari, its disappearance in please the monopoly of deprived Capitalism, and a proposal of the Nobel prize de Economy of the 1988, Maurice Allais, who can make resurge it.
  
  
[[Image:Translation.png|30px]] [[:fca:Història del capitalisme comunitari|(Català)]] [[:fes:Historia del capitalismo comunitario|(Español)]]
+
{{Itranslation}} [[:fca:Història del capitalisme comunitari|(Català)]] [[:fes:Historia del capitalismo comunitario|(Español)]]
 
}}
 
}}
  
  
 
{{Title_3
 
{{Title_3
|'''[[Banque de Paris et des Pays-Bas|Banque Paribas' History]]'''
+
|'''[[Banque de Paris et des Pays-Bas|Banque Paribas' history]]'''
 
|
 
|
 
[[Image:Horace_Finaly_02.jpg|right|110px]]
 
[[Image:Horace_Finaly_02.jpg|right|110px]]
Line 165: Line 239:
  
  
[[Image:Translation.png|30px]] [[:ffr:Banque de Paris et des Pays-Bas|(Français)]]
+
{{Itranslation}} [[:ffr:Banque de Paris et des Pays-Bas|(Français)]]
 
}}
 
}}
 
  
  
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[[Category:Translation]]
 
[[Category:Translation]]
 +
[[Category:Videos]]
  
[[fca:Portada]]
 
[[fde:Hauptseite]]
 
[[fes:Portada]]
 
[[feo:Ĉefpaĝo]]
 
[[ffr:Accueil]]
 
[[fit:Pagina_principale]]
 
  
 
[[ca:Portada]]
 
[[ca:Portada]]
Line 189: Line 257:
 
[[fr:Accueil]]
 
[[fr:Accueil]]
 
[[it:Pagina_principale]]
 
[[it:Pagina_principale]]
 +
[[ro:Pagina_principală]]

Latest revision as of 21:07, 26 March 2018


 Horace Finaly School  —  Economics and Society
Horace Finaly (1871-1945) [1]



Political and economical proposals about the possibility for creating money and community wealth for everybody.



Finaly School Publications (Books and documents)


News

97% Owned - How is money created. Positive Money Cut

97% owned present serious research and verifiable evidence on our economic and financial system. This is the first documentary to tackle this issue from a UK-perspective and explains the inner workings of Central Banks and the Money creation process.

When money drives almost all activity on the planet, it's essential that we understand it. Yet simple questions often get overlooked, questions like; where does money come from? Who creates it? Who decides how it gets used? And what does this mean for the millions of ordinary people who suffer when the monetary, and financial system, breaks down?

YouTube: 97% Owned - How is money created. Positive Money Cut


The telematic currency: an instrument for peace - 2009

Without cash, we would live in a much more secure environment. There would be less violent and more social cohesion, since the main attractive for illegal activities would disappear. The telematic implies great hope for all the population on de planet as long as it is used as an instrument dedicated to preserve the liberty and information of all citizens.

Agustí Chalaux i de Subirà (1911-2006) founder of the Joan Bardina Studies Center (1984) and of the Finaly School (1995), investigated and developed throughout his life this economic, scientific and rationalized system.

translation.png (Català) (Español) (Français) (Italiano)


45 Years Ago Today Richard Nixon Killed The Gold Standard - 08/15/1971

45 years ago today, on 08/15/1971, under pressure from the FEDERAL RESERVE, Nixon suspended the convertibility of the US dollar into gold. The Federal Reserve demanded this action TO PROTECT THE US DOLLAR FROM SPECULATORS.

The value of the US dollar has been steadily falling ever since. Today our currency has a lower value than the Canadian dollar, or the Euro.

Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nixon_shock


Collection Bullae


Plutarchy and Other Tales
Agustí Chalaux i de Subirà
Agusti Chalaux i de Subira.jpg


History of the social researcher Agustí Chalaux. His meetings with banker Horace Finaly.


translation.png (Català) (Español) (Italiano) (Română)


Horace Finaly
Alfred Colling
Horace Finaly 02.jpg


History of the banker Horace Finaly.


translation.png (Català) (Español) (Français) (Română)


The Earliest Precursor of Writing
Denise Schmandt-Besserat
Bulla small.jpg


Denise Schmandt-Besserat, suggest the hypothesis that these simple clay figurines represent the first currency in history. That that currency is a «note», a «bookkeeping entry», and that this opens the way to writing.


translation.png (Català) (Deutsch) (Español) (Français) (Română)


Two Precursors of Writing: Plain and Complex Tokens
Denise Schmandt-Besserat
Two Precursors of Writing Figure 04.jpg


Before the Sumerian writing system—the first script ever developed—was invented at the end of the fourth millennium B.C., accounting was practiced in the ancient Middle East by means of small counters. These were small tokens modeled in clay in different shapes, each symbolizing a particular commodity. The token system consisted of two kinds of tokens—«plain» and «complex».


translation.png (Español)


Reckoning Before Writing
Denise Schmandt-Besserat
Reckoning Before Writing Bulla 01.jpg


The tokens from Tepe Asiab may be considered an elaboration of a system of counting based on pebbles. The novelty was to use clay for the manufacture of the counters, permitting one to model the tokens into various shapes and to assign each form a particular meaning. Thus, the counters became a more precise memory aid since they not only conferred the quantity but also the specific nature of the commodities recorded.



The Emergence of Recording
Denise Schmandt-Besserat
Precursor Writing 01.jpg


Tokens are small clay artifacts modeled in various shapes, mostly geometric. In previous publications, I wrote that tokens were used for recording prior to writing in the ancient Middle East. I suggested that each token shape stood for a precise quantity of a particular good such as "a peck of barley" or "a jar of oil". In this paper, I focus on the earliest assemblages of tokens and present the available data concerning where, when, and how the first tokens appear. Finally I identity factor(s) which may have been responsible for the emergence of recording.



An Instrument to Build Peace
Agustí Chalaux i de Subirà
An instrument peace.jpg


A text which proposes the use of modern technology to implant a universal electronic coinage which would favour world peace and tend to eliminate anonymous money. The connection between anonymous money and imperialism is also discussed.


translation.png (Català) (Español) (Français) (Italiano)


Essay on Currency, Market and Society
Magdalena Grau i Figueras - Agustí Chalaux i de Subirà
Essay on currency market and society.jpg


A book in which a new economic and political model is proposed, based on a transparent and responsible market, the minimisation of power over individuals and the creation of a society with less misery and corruption.


translation.png (Català) (Español)


Autobiographical Notes
Agustí Chalaux i de Subirà
Agusti Chalaux i de Subira.jpg


History of the social researcher Agustí Chalaux. His meetings with banker Horace Finaly. Hopes and frustrations of idealistic militants. The quest for an economic system which is also scientific and rationilized.


translation.png (Català) (Deutsch) (Español) (Esperanto) (Français) (Italiano)


Telematic Currency and Market Strategy
Magdalena Grau i Figueras - Agustí Chalaux i de Subirà
Telematic currency.jpg


Small book where the monetary systems are studied along the history and the forecasts and consequences of the installation of the telematic currency of obligatory use.


translation.png (Català) (Deutsch) (Español) (Français) (Italiano)


The Power of Money
Martí Olivella i Solé
Bulla small.jpg


Book when it studies currency and money along the history and its transformations like basic elements for consecution of a more just society and with less corruption and poverty.


translation.png (Català) (Español) (Italiano)


A Short History of Money
Agustí Chalaux i de Subirà - Brauli Tamarit i Tamarit
Bulla small.jpg


A short text explaining the history of money. Originally, it was an instrument which aided commerce and favoured responsibility. Later, it changed, permitting corruption. In view of this, a money system using modern technology and which once again favours responsibility, is proposed.


translation.png (Català) (Deutsch) (Español) (Esperanto) (Français) (Italiano) (Română)


Communal Capitalism
Agustí Chalaux i de Subirà
Ferdinand Lassalle.jpg


An analysis based on the proposal made by Bismarck, Marx and Lasalle, to give a Basic Revenue to each person without a salary. Description of the people who would benefit from this revenue. A proposal of public funding expressed by Maurice Allais, Nobel Prize of Economy, which would allow the introduction of this Basic Revenue without having to resort to heavy tax systems.


translation.png (Català) (Deutsch) (Español) (Esperanto) (Français) (Italiano) (Română)


The History of Community Capitalism
Agustí Chalaux i de Subirà
Maurice Allais.jpg


Communication presented/displayed by Agustí Chalaux i de Subirà Saturday, 17 of February of 2001, in the seat of the Randa Foundation, in where the history of Capitalism is explained comunitari, its disappearance in please the monopoly of deprived Capitalism, and a proposal of the Nobel prize de Economy of the 1988, Maurice Allais, who can make resurge it.


translation.png (Català) (Español)


Banque Paribas' history
Horace Finaly 02.jpg


Extracted from «Handbook on the History of European Banks» written by European Association for Banking History E.V.


translation.png (Français)